一些更高级的数学¶

代数几何¶

sage: x, y = AffineSpace(2, QQ, 'xy').gens()
sage: C2 = Curve(x^2 + y^2 - 1)
sage: C3 = Curve(x^3 + y^3 - 1)
sage: D = C2 + C3
sage: D
Affine Plane Curve over Rational Field defined by
x^5 + x^3*y^2 + x^2*y^3 + y^5 - x^3 - y^3 - x^2 - y^2 + 1
sage: D.irreducible_components()
[
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x^2 + y^2 - 1,
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x^3 + y^3 - 1
]


sage: V = C2.intersection(C3)
sage: V.irreducible_components()
[
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
y,
x - 1,
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
y - 1,
x,
Closed subscheme of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field defined by:
x + y + 2,
2*y^2 + 4*y + 3
]


Sage可以计算出射影3空间中扭曲立方的复曲面理想：

sage: R.<a,b,c,d> = PolynomialRing(QQ, 4)
sage: I = ideal(b^2-a*c, c^2-b*d, a*d-b*c)
sage: F = I.groebner_fan(); F
Groebner fan of the ideal:
Ideal (b^2 - a*c, c^2 - b*d, -b*c + a*d) of Multivariate Polynomial Ring
in a, b, c, d over Rational Field
sage: F.reduced_groebner_bases ()
[[-c^2 + b*d, -b*c + a*d, -b^2 + a*c],
[-b*c + a*d, -c^2 + b*d, b^2 - a*c],
[-c^3 + a*d^2, -c^2 + b*d, b*c - a*d, b^2 - a*c],
[-c^2 + b*d, b^2 - a*c, b*c - a*d, c^3 - a*d^2],
[-b*c + a*d, -b^2 + a*c, c^2 - b*d],
[-b^3 + a^2*d, -b^2 + a*c, c^2 - b*d, b*c - a*d],
[-b^2 + a*c, c^2 - b*d, b*c - a*d, b^3 - a^2*d],
[c^2 - b*d, b*c - a*d, b^2 - a*c]]
sage: F.polyhedralfan()
Polyhedral fan in 4 dimensions of dimension 4


椭圆曲线算法¶

• 椭圆曲线( [$$a_1$$, $$a_2$$, $$a_3$$, $$a_4$$, $$a_6$$] )：返回椭圆曲线

$y^2+a_1xy+a_3y=x^3+a_2x^2+a_4x+a_6,$

何处 $$a_i$$ 的被强制加入 $$a_1$$ . 如果所有的 $$a_i$$ 有父母吗 $$\ZZ$$ ，他们被迫 $$\QQ$$ .

• 椭圆曲线( [$$a_4$$, $$a_6$$] )：同上，但 $$a_1=a_2=a_3=0$$ .

• EllipticCurve（label）：使用给定的（new！）从Cremona数据库返回椭圆曲线克雷莫纳标签。标签是一个字符串，例如 "11a""37b2" . 字母必须小写（以区别于旧标签）。

• EllipticCurve（j）：返回带有 $$j$$ -不变量 $$j$$ .

• 椭圆曲线（R， [$$a_1$$, $$a_2$$, $$a_3$$, $$a_4$$, $$a_6$$] )：在环上创建椭圆曲线 $$R$$ 给予 $$a_i$$ 如前所述。

sage: EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-1,0])
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x over Rational Field

sage: EllipticCurve([GF(5)(0),0,1,-1,0])
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + 4*x over Finite Field of size 5

sage: EllipticCurve([1,2])
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2  = x^3 + x + 2 over Rational Field

sage: EllipticCurve('37a')
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x over Rational Field

sage: EllipticCurve_from_j(1)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y = x^3 + 36*x + 3455 over Rational Field

sage: EllipticCurve(GF(5), [0,0,1,-1,0])
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + 4*x over Finite Field of size 5


sage: E = EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-1,0])
sage: E
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x over Rational Field
sage: P = E([0,0])
sage: P + P
(1 : 0 : 1)
sage: 10*P
(161/16 : -2065/64 : 1)
sage: 20*P
(683916417/264517696 : -18784454671297/4302115807744 : 1)
sage: E.conductor()
37


sage: E = EllipticCurve([0,0,0,-4,2]); E
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 4*x + 2 over Rational Field
sage: E.conductor()
2368
sage: E.j_invariant()
110592/37


sage: F = EllipticCurve_from_j(110592/37)
sage: F.conductor()
37


sage: G = F.quadratic_twist(2); G
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 4*x + 2 over Rational Field
sage: G.conductor()
2368
sage: G.j_invariant()
110592/37


sage: E = EllipticCurve([0,0,1,-1,0])
sage: E.anlist(30)
[0, 1, -2, -3, 2, -2, 6, -1, 0, 6, 4, -5, -6, -2, 2, 6, -4, 0, -12, 0, -4,
3, 10, 2, 0, -1, 4, -9, -2, 6, -12]
sage: v = E.anlist(10000)


sage: %time v = E.anlist(100000)
CPU times: user 0.98 s, sys: 0.06 s, total: 1.04 s
Wall time: 1.06


sage: E = EllipticCurve("37b2")
sage: E
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + x^2 - 1873*x - 31833 over Rational
Field
sage: E = EllipticCurve("389a")
sage: E
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + x^2 - 2*x  over Rational Field
sage: E.rank()
2
sage: E = EllipticCurve("5077a")
sage: E.rank()
3


sage: db = sage.databases.cremona.CremonaDatabase()
sage: db.curves(37)
{'a1': [[0, 0, 1, -1, 0], 1, 1], 'b1': [[0, 1, 1, -23, -50], 0, 3]}
sage: db.allcurves(37)
{'a1': [[0, 0, 1, -1, 0], 1, 1],
'b1': [[0, 1, 1, -23, -50], 0, 3],
'b2': [[0, 1, 1, -1873, -31833], 0, 1],
'b3': [[0, 1, 1, -3, 1], 0, 3]}


狄利克雷特字符¶

A 狄利克雷特字符 是同态的扩张 $$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^* \to R^*$$ ，为了一些环 $$R$$ ，到地图上 $$\ZZ \to R$$ 通过发送这些整数得到 $$x$$ 具有 $$\gcd(N,x)>1$$ 到0。

sage: G = DirichletGroup(12)
sage: G.list()
[Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 1 mapping 7 |--> 1, 5 |--> 1,
Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 4 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> 1,
Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 3 mapping 7 |--> 1, 5 |--> -1,
Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 12 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> -1]
sage: G.gens()
(Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 4 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> 1,
Dirichlet character modulo 12 of conductor 3 mapping 7 |--> 1, 5 |--> -1)
sage: len(G)
4


sage: G = DirichletGroup(21)
sage: chi = G.1; chi
Dirichlet character modulo 21 of conductor 7 mapping 8 |--> 1, 10 |--> zeta6
sage: chi.values()
[0, 1, zeta6 - 1, 0, -zeta6, -zeta6 + 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, zeta6, -zeta6, 0, -1,
0, 0, zeta6 - 1, zeta6, 0, -zeta6 + 1, -1]
sage: chi.conductor()
7
sage: chi.modulus()
21
sage: chi.order()
6
sage: chi(19)
-zeta6 + 1
sage: chi(40)
-zeta6 + 1


sage: chi.galois_orbit()
[Dirichlet character modulo 21 of conductor 7 mapping 8 |--> 1, 10 |--> -zeta6 + 1,
Dirichlet character modulo 21 of conductor 7 mapping 8 |--> 1, 10 |--> zeta6]

sage: go = G.galois_orbits()
sage: [len(orbit) for orbit in go]
[1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1]

sage: G.decomposition()
[
Group of Dirichlet characters modulo 3 with values in Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2,
Group of Dirichlet characters modulo 7 with values in Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
]


sage: K.<i> = NumberField(x^2+1)
sage: G = DirichletGroup(20,K)
sage: G
Group of Dirichlet characters modulo 20 with values in Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1


sage: G.gens()
(Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1,
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> i)

sage: G.unit_gens()
(11, 17)
sage: G.zeta()
i
sage: G.zeta_order()
4


sage: x = polygen(QQ, 'x')
sage: K = NumberField(x^4 + 1, 'a'); a = K.0
sage: b = K.gen(); a == b
True
sage: K
Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^4 + 1
sage: G = DirichletGroup(5, K, a); G
Group of Dirichlet characters modulo 5 with values in the group of order 8 generated by a in Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^4 + 1
sage: chi = G.0; chi
Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> a^2
sage: [(chi^i)(2) for i in range(4)]
[1, a^2, -1, -a^2]


模块化形式¶

Sage可以进行一些与模形式有关的计算，包括维数、模符号的计算空间、Hecke算子和分解。

sage: dimension_cusp_forms(Gamma0(11),2)
1
sage: dimension_cusp_forms(Gamma0(1),12)
1
sage: dimension_cusp_forms(Gamma1(389),2)
6112


sage: M = ModularSymbols(1,12)
sage: M.basis()
([X^8*Y^2,(0,0)], [X^9*Y,(0,0)], [X^10,(0,0)])
sage: t2 = M.T(2)
sage: t2
Hecke operator T_2 on Modular Symbols space of dimension 3 for Gamma_0(1)
of weight 12 with sign 0 over Rational Field
sage: t2.matrix()
[ -24    0    0]
[   0  -24    0]
[4860    0 2049]
sage: f = t2.charpoly('x'); f
x^3 - 2001*x^2 - 97776*x - 1180224
sage: factor(f)
(x - 2049) * (x + 24)^2
sage: M.T(11).charpoly('x').factor()
(x - 285311670612) * (x - 534612)^2


sage: ModularSymbols(11,2)
Modular Symbols space of dimension 3 for Gamma_0(11) of weight 2 with sign
0 over Rational Field
sage: ModularSymbols(Gamma1(11),2)
Modular Symbols space of dimension 11 for Gamma_1(11) of weight 2 with
sign 0 and over Rational Field


sage: M = ModularSymbols(Gamma1(11),2)
sage: M.T(2).charpoly('x')
x^11 - 8*x^10 + 20*x^9 + 10*x^8 - 145*x^7 + 229*x^6 + 58*x^5 - 360*x^4
+ 70*x^3 - 515*x^2 + 1804*x - 1452
sage: M.T(2).charpoly('x').factor()
(x - 3) * (x + 2)^2 * (x^4 - 7*x^3 + 19*x^2 - 23*x + 11)
* (x^4 - 2*x^3 + 4*x^2 + 2*x + 11)
sage: S = M.cuspidal_submodule()
sage: S.T(2).matrix()
[-2  0]
[ 0 -2]
sage: S.q_expansion_basis(10)
[
q - 2*q^2 - q^3 + 2*q^4 + q^5 + 2*q^6 - 2*q^7 - 2*q^9 + O(q^10)
]


sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = G.0^2
sage: M = ModularSymbols(e,2); M
Modular Symbols space of dimension 4 and level 13, weight 2, character
[zeta6], sign 0, over Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
sage: M.T(2).charpoly('x').factor()
(x - zeta6 - 2) * (x - 2*zeta6 - 1) * (x + zeta6 + 1)^2
sage: S = M.cuspidal_submodule(); S
Modular Symbols subspace of dimension 2 of Modular Symbols space of
dimension 4 and level 13, weight 2, character [zeta6], sign 0, over
Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
sage: S.T(2).charpoly('x').factor()
(x + zeta6 + 1)^2
sage: S.q_expansion_basis(10)
[
q + (-zeta6 - 1)*q^2 + (2*zeta6 - 2)*q^3 + zeta6*q^4 + (-2*zeta6 + 1)*q^5
+ (-2*zeta6 + 4)*q^6 + (2*zeta6 - 1)*q^8 - zeta6*q^9 + O(q^10)
]


sage: T = ModularForms(Gamma0(11),2)
sage: T
Modular Forms space of dimension 2 for Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) of
weight 2 over Rational Field
sage: T.degree()
2
sage: T.level()
11
sage: T.group()
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11)
sage: T.dimension()
2
sage: T.cuspidal_subspace()
Cuspidal subspace of dimension 1 of Modular Forms space of dimension 2 for
Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) of weight 2 over Rational Field
sage: T.eisenstein_subspace()
Eisenstein subspace of dimension 1 of Modular Forms space of dimension 2
for Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(11) of weight 2 over Rational Field
sage: M = ModularSymbols(11); M
Modular Symbols space of dimension 3 for Gamma_0(11) of weight 2 with sign
0 over Rational Field
sage: M.weight()
2
sage: M.basis()
((1,0), (1,8), (1,9))
sage: M.sign()
0


$$T_p$$ 表示通常的Hecke运算符 ($$p$$ 主）。Hecke操作员怎么办 $$T_2$$$$T_3$$$$T_5$$ 作用于模块符号的空间？

sage: M.T(2).matrix()
[ 3  0 -1]
[ 0 -2  0]
[ 0  0 -2]
sage: M.T(3).matrix()
[ 4  0 -1]
[ 0 -1  0]
[ 0  0 -1]
sage: M.T(5).matrix()
[ 6  0 -1]
[ 0  1  0]
[ 0  0  1]