快速启动

如果您还没有这样做,请花点时间 install 在继续之前的falcon web框架。

以身作则

以下是Falcon自述中的一个简单示例,演示如何开始编写应用程序。

# examples/things.py

# Let's get this party started!
from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server

import falcon


# Falcon follows the REST architectural style, meaning (among
# other things) that you think in terms of resources and state
# transitions, which map to HTTP verbs.
class ThingsResource:
    def on_get(self, req, resp):
        """Handles GET requests"""
        resp.status = falcon.HTTP_200  # This is the default status
        resp.content_type = falcon.MEDIA_TEXT  # Default is JSON, so override
        resp.body = ('\nTwo things awe me most, the starry sky '
                     'above me and the moral law within me.\n'
                     '\n'
                     '    ~ Immanuel Kant\n\n')


# falcon.App instances are callable WSGI apps
# in larger applications the app is created in a separate file
app = falcon.App()

# Resources are represented by long-lived class instances
things = ThingsResource()

# things will handle all requests to the '/things' URL path
app.add_route('/things', things)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    with make_server('', 8000, app) as httpd:
        print('Serving on port 8000...')

        # Serve until process is killed
        httpd.serve_forever()

您可以直接使用包含的wsgiref服务器运行上述示例:

$ pip install falcon
$ python things.py

然后,在另一个终端:

$ curl localhost:8000/things

作为卷曲的另一种选择,你可能想要 HTTPie 尝试一下:

$ pip install --upgrade httpie
$ http localhost:8000/things
# examples/things_asgi.py

import falcon
import falcon.asgi


# Falcon follows the REST architectural style, meaning (among
# other things) that you think in terms of resources and state
# transitions, which map to HTTP verbs.
class ThingsResource:
    async def on_get(self, req, resp):
        """Handles GET requests"""
        resp.status = falcon.HTTP_200  # This is the default status
        resp.content_type = falcon.MEDIA_TEXT  # Default is JSON, so override
        resp.body = ('\nTwo things awe me most, the starry sky '
                     'above me and the moral law within me.\n'
                     '\n'
                     '    ~ Immanuel Kant\n\n')


# falcon.asgi.App instances are callable ASGI apps...
# in larger applications the app is created in a separate file
app = falcon.asgi.App()

# Resources are represented by long-lived class instances
things = ThingsResource()

# things will handle all requests to the '/things' URL path
app.add_route('/things', things)

您可以使用uvicorn或任何其他ASGI服务器运行ASGI版本:

$ pip install falcon uvicorn
$ uvicorn things_asgi:app

然后,在另一个终端:

$ curl localhost:8000/things

作为卷曲的另一种选择,你可能想要 HTTPie 尝试一下:

$ pip install --upgrade httpie
$ http localhost:8000/things

一个更复杂的例子

下面是一个更复杂的示例,演示了读取头和查询参数、处理错误以及处理请求和响应主体。

注意,这个例子假设 requests 包已安装。

# examples/things_advanced.py

import json
import logging
import uuid
from wsgiref import simple_server

import falcon
import requests


class StorageEngine:

    def get_things(self, marker, limit):
        return [{'id': str(uuid.uuid4()), 'color': 'green'}]

    def add_thing(self, thing):
        thing['id'] = str(uuid.uuid4())
        return thing


class StorageError(Exception):

    @staticmethod
    def handle(ex, req, resp, params):
        # TODO: Log the error, clean up, etc. before raising
        raise falcon.HTTPInternalServerError()


class SinkAdapter:

    engines = {
        'ddg': 'https://duckduckgo.com',
        'y': 'https://search.yahoo.com/search',
    }

    def __call__(self, req, resp, engine):
        url = self.engines[engine]
        params = {'q': req.get_param('q', True)}
        result = requests.get(url, params=params)

        resp.status = str(result.status_code) + ' ' + result.reason
        resp.content_type = result.headers['content-type']
        resp.body = result.text


class AuthMiddleware:

    def process_request(self, req, resp):
        token = req.get_header('Authorization')
        account_id = req.get_header('Account-ID')

        challenges = ['Token type="Fernet"']

        if token is None:
            description = ('Please provide an auth token '
                           'as part of the request.')

            raise falcon.HTTPUnauthorized(title='Auth token required',
                                          description=description,
                                          challenges=challenges,
                                          href='http://docs.example.com/auth')

        if not self._token_is_valid(token, account_id):
            description = ('The provided auth token is not valid. '
                           'Please request a new token and try again.')

            raise falcon.HTTPUnauthorized(title='Authentication required',
                                          description=description,
                                          challenges=challenges,
                                          href='http://docs.example.com/auth')

    def _token_is_valid(self, token, account_id):
        return True  # Suuuuuure it's valid...


class RequireJSON:

    def process_request(self, req, resp):
        if not req.client_accepts_json:
            raise falcon.HTTPNotAcceptable(
                description='This API only supports responses encoded as JSON.',
                href='http://docs.examples.com/api/json')

        if req.method in ('POST', 'PUT'):
            if 'application/json' not in req.content_type:
                raise falcon.HTTPUnsupportedMediaType(
                    title='This API only supports requests encoded as JSON.',
                    href='http://docs.examples.com/api/json')


class JSONTranslator:
    # NOTE: Normally you would simply use req.media and resp.media for
    # this particular use case; this example serves only to illustrate
    # what is possible.

    def process_request(self, req, resp):
        # req.stream corresponds to the WSGI wsgi.input environ variable,
        # and allows you to read bytes from the request body.
        #
        # See also: PEP 3333
        if req.content_length in (None, 0):
            # Nothing to do
            return

        body = req.stream.read()
        if not body:
            raise falcon.HTTPBadRequest(title='Empty request body',
                                        description='A valid JSON document is required.')

        try:
            req.context.doc = json.loads(body.decode('utf-8'))

        except (ValueError, UnicodeDecodeError):
            description = ('Could not decode the request body. The '
                           'JSON was incorrect or not encoded as '
                           'UTF-8.')

            raise falcon.HTTPBadRequest(title='Malformed JSON',
                                        description=description)

    def process_response(self, req, resp, resource, req_succeeded):
        if not hasattr(resp.context, 'result'):
            return

        resp.body = json.dumps(resp.context.result)


def max_body(limit):

    def hook(req, resp, resource, params):
        length = req.content_length
        if length is not None and length > limit:
            msg = ('The size of the request is too large. The body must not '
                   'exceed ' + str(limit) + ' bytes in length.')

            raise falcon.HTTPPayloadTooLarge(
                title='Request body is too large', description=msg)

    return hook


class ThingsResource:

    def __init__(self, db):
        self.db = db
        self.logger = logging.getLogger('thingsapp.' + __name__)

    def on_get(self, req, resp, user_id):
        marker = req.get_param('marker') or ''
        limit = req.get_param_as_int('limit') or 50

        try:
            result = self.db.get_things(marker, limit)
        except Exception as ex:
            self.logger.error(ex)

            description = ('Aliens have attacked our base! We will '
                           'be back as soon as we fight them off. '
                           'We appreciate your patience.')

            raise falcon.HTTPServiceUnavailable(
                title='Service Outage',
                description=description,
                retry_after=30)

        # NOTE: Normally you would use resp.media for this sort of thing;
        # this example serves only to demonstrate how the context can be
        # used to pass arbitrary values between middleware components,
        # hooks, and resources.
        resp.context.result = result

        resp.set_header('Powered-By', 'Falcon')
        resp.status = falcon.HTTP_200

    @falcon.before(max_body(64 * 1024))
    def on_post(self, req, resp, user_id):
        try:
            doc = req.context.doc
        except AttributeError:
            raise falcon.HTTPBadRequest(
                title='Missing thing',
                description='A thing must be submitted in the request body.')

        proper_thing = self.db.add_thing(doc)

        resp.status = falcon.HTTP_201
        resp.location = '/%s/things/%s' % (user_id, proper_thing['id'])


# Configure your WSGI server to load "things.app" (app is a WSGI callable)
app = falcon.App(middleware=[
    AuthMiddleware(),
    RequireJSON(),
    JSONTranslator(),
])

db = StorageEngine()
things = ThingsResource(db)
app.add_route('/{user_id}/things', things)

# If a responder ever raises an instance of StorageError, pass control to
# the given handler.
app.add_error_handler(StorageError, StorageError.handle)

# Proxy some things to another service; this example shows how you might
# send parts of an API off to a legacy system that hasn't been upgraded
# yet, or perhaps is a single cluster that all data centers have to share.
sink = SinkAdapter()
app.add_sink(sink, r'/search/(?P<engine>ddg|y)\Z')

# Useful for debugging problems in your API; works with pdb.set_trace(). You
# can also use Gunicorn to host your app. Gunicorn can be configured to
# auto-restart workers when it detects a code change, and it also works
# with pdb.
if __name__ == '__main__':
    httpd = simple_server.make_server('127.0.0.1', 8000, app)
    httpd.serve_forever()

同样,这段代码使用wsgiref,但是您也可以使用任何WSGI服务器(如uWSGI或Gunicorn)运行上面的示例。例如:

$ pip install requests gunicorn
$ gunicorn things:app

在Windows上,您可以通过WSL运行Gunicorn和uWSGI,也可以尝试服务生:

$ pip install requests waitress
$ waitress-serve --port=8000 things:app

要测试此示例,请转到另一个终端并运行:

$ http localhost:8000/1/things authorization:custom-token

要可视化应用程序配置 检查模块 可用于:

falcon-inspect-app things_advanced:app

这将打印此示例应用程序:

Falcon App (WSGI)
• Routes:
    ⇒ /{user_id}/things - ThingsResource:
       ├── GET - on_get
       └── POST - on_post
• Middleware (Middleware are independent):
    → AuthMiddleware.process_request
      → RequireJSON.process_request
        → JSONTranslator.process_request

            ├── Process route responder

        ↢ JSONTranslator.process_response
• Sinks:
    ⇥ /search/(?P<engine>ddg|y)\Z SinkAdapter
• Error handlers:
    ⇜ StorageError handle

请注意,此示例需要 httpx 包装代替 requests .

# examples/things_advanced_asgi.py

import json
import logging
import uuid

import falcon
import falcon.asgi
import httpx


class StorageEngine:

    async def get_things(self, marker, limit):
        return [{'id': str(uuid.uuid4()), 'color': 'green'}]

    async def add_thing(self, thing):
        thing['id'] = str(uuid.uuid4())
        return thing


class StorageError(Exception):

    @staticmethod
    async def handle(ex, req, resp, params):
        # TODO: Log the error, clean up, etc. before raising
        raise falcon.HTTPInternalServerError()


class SinkAdapter:

    engines = {
        'ddg': 'https://duckduckgo.com',
        'y': 'https://search.yahoo.com/search',
    }

    async def __call__(self, req, resp, engine):
        url = self.engines[engine]
        params = {'q': req.get_param('q', True)}

        async with httpx.AsyncClient() as client:
            result = await client.get(url, params=params)

        resp.status = result.status_code
        resp.content_type = result.headers['content-type']
        resp.body = result.text


class AuthMiddleware:

    async def process_request(self, req, resp):
        token = req.get_header('Authorization')
        account_id = req.get_header('Account-ID')

        challenges = ['Token type="Fernet"']

        if token is None:
            description = ('Please provide an auth token '
                           'as part of the request.')

            raise falcon.HTTPUnauthorized(title='Auth token required',
                                          description=description,
                                          challenges=challenges,
                                          href='http://docs.example.com/auth')

        if not self._token_is_valid(token, account_id):
            description = ('The provided auth token is not valid. '
                           'Please request a new token and try again.')

            raise falcon.HTTPUnauthorized(title='Authentication required',
                                          description=description,
                                          challenges=challenges,
                                          href='http://docs.example.com/auth')

    def _token_is_valid(self, token, account_id):
        return True  # Suuuuuure it's valid...


class RequireJSON:

    async def process_request(self, req, resp):
        if not req.client_accepts_json:
            raise falcon.HTTPNotAcceptable(
                description='This API only supports responses encoded as JSON.',
                href='http://docs.examples.com/api/json')

        if req.method in ('POST', 'PUT'):
            if 'application/json' not in req.content_type:
                raise falcon.HTTPUnsupportedMediaType(
                    description='This API only supports requests encoded as JSON.',
                    href='http://docs.examples.com/api/json')


class JSONTranslator:
    # NOTE: Normally you would simply use req.get_media() and resp.media for
    # this particular use case; this example serves only to illustrate
    # what is possible.

    async def process_request(self, req, resp):
        # NOTE: Test explicitly for 0, since this property could be None in
        # the case that the Content-Length header is missing (in which case we
        # can't know if there is a body without actually attempting to read
        # it from the request stream.)
        if req.content_length == 0:
            # Nothing to do
            return

        body = await req.stream.read()
        if not body:
            raise falcon.HTTPBadRequest(title='Empty request body',
                                        description='A valid JSON document is required.')

        try:
            req.context.doc = json.loads(body.decode('utf-8'))

        except (ValueError, UnicodeDecodeError):
            description = ('Could not decode the request body. The '
                           'JSON was incorrect or not encoded as '
                           'UTF-8.')

            raise falcon.HTTPBadRequest(title='Malformed JSON',
                                        description=description)

    async def process_response(self, req, resp, resource, req_succeeded):
        if not hasattr(resp.context, 'result'):
            return

        resp.body = json.dumps(resp.context.result)


def max_body(limit):

    async def hook(req, resp, resource, params):
        length = req.content_length
        if length is not None and length > limit:
            msg = ('The size of the request is too large. The body must not '
                   'exceed ' + str(limit) + ' bytes in length.')

            raise falcon.HTTPPayloadTooLarge(
                title='Request body is too large', description=msg)

    return hook


class ThingsResource:

    def __init__(self, db):
        self.db = db
        self.logger = logging.getLogger('thingsapp.' + __name__)

    async def on_get(self, req, resp, user_id):
        marker = req.get_param('marker') or ''
        limit = req.get_param_as_int('limit') or 50

        try:
            result = await self.db.get_things(marker, limit)
        except Exception as ex:
            self.logger.error(ex)

            description = ('Aliens have attacked our base! We will '
                           'be back as soon as we fight them off. '
                           'We appreciate your patience.')

            raise falcon.HTTPServiceUnavailable(
                title='Service Outage',
                description=description,
                retry_after=30)

        # NOTE: Normally you would use resp.media for this sort of thing;
        # this example serves only to demonstrate how the context can be
        # used to pass arbitrary values between middleware components,
        # hooks, and resources.
        resp.context.result = result

        resp.set_header('Powered-By', 'Falcon')
        resp.status = falcon.HTTP_200

    @falcon.before(max_body(64 * 1024))
    async def on_post(self, req, resp, user_id):
        try:
            doc = req.context.doc
        except AttributeError:
            raise falcon.HTTPBadRequest(
                title='Missing thing',
                description='A thing must be submitted in the request body.')

        proper_thing = await self.db.add_thing(doc)

        resp.status = falcon.HTTP_201
        resp.location = '/%s/things/%s' % (user_id, proper_thing['id'])


# The app instance is an ASGI callable
app = falcon.asgi.App(middleware=[
    # AuthMiddleware(),
    RequireJSON(),
    JSONTranslator(),
])

db = StorageEngine()
things = ThingsResource(db)
app.add_route('/{user_id}/things', things)

# If a responder ever raises an instance of StorageError, pass control to
# the given handler.
app.add_error_handler(StorageError, StorageError.handle)

# Proxy some things to another service; this example shows how you might
# send parts of an API off to a legacy system that hasn't been upgraded
# yet, or perhaps is a single cluster that all data centers have to share.
sink = SinkAdapter()
app.add_sink(sink, r'/search/(?P<engine>ddg|y)\Z')

您可以在任何ASGI服务器上运行ASGI版本,例如uvicorn:

$ pip install falcon httpx uvicorn
$ uvicorn things_advanced_asgi:app